CS refers to a Colorimetric Solution. TS refers to a Test Solution. Alcohol Content Percentages of alcohol, such as those under the heading Alcohol content, refer to percentage by volume of C 2 H 5 OH at Where a formula, test, or assay calls for alcohol, ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, the USP monograph article Alcohol shall be used.
Where a procedure calls for dehydrated alcohol, alcohol absolute, or anhydrous alcohol, the USP monograph article Dehydrated Alcohol shall be used.
Alcohol in Dextrose
See also section 8. Logarithms Logarithms are to the base Microbial Strain A microbial strain cited and identified by its ATCC catalog number shall be used directly or, if subcultured, shall be used not more than five passages removed from the original strain. An odor designation is descriptive only and should not be regarded as a standard of purity for a particular lot of an article.
For mixtures of solids and semisolids, percent weight in weight; For solutions or suspensions of solids in liquids, percent weight in volume; For solutions of liquids in liquids, percent volume in volume; For solutions of gases in liquids, percent weight in volume.
For example, a 1 percent solution is prepared by dissolving 1 g of a solid or semisolid, or 1 mL of a liquid, in sufficient solvent to make mL of the solution. Percentage Concentrations Percentage concentrations are expressed as follows:.
Pressure Pressure is determined by use of a suitable manometer or barometer calibrated in terms of the pressure exerted by a column of mercury of the stated height. Reaction Time Reaction time is 5 minutes unless otherwise specified. Specific Gravity Specific gravity is the weight of a substance in air at 25 divided by the weight of an equal volume of water at the same temperature.
Temperatures Temperatures are expressed in centigrade Celsius degrees, and all measurements are made at 25 unless otherwise indicated. Where moderate heat is specified, any temperature not higher than 45 F is indicated. Time Unless otherwise specified, rounding rules, as described in section 7. Water 8. Water in the Manufacture of Official Substances When used in the manufacture of official substances, water may meet the requirements for drinking water as set forth in the regulations of the U.
Environmental Protection Agency potable water. Water in a Compendial Procedure When water is called for in a compendial procedure, the USP article Purified Water shall be used unless otherwise specified.Ethyl alcohol [ ].
Allow to stand for 4 to 6 hours. The suspension must not adhere to the glass and must be well mixed before use. Mix, and allow to stand for 24 hours. Transfer Test solution A: substance to be examined. Similarly transfer portions of Reference suspension A, Reference suspension B, and water to separate matching test tubes.
Compare Test solution A, Test solution B, Reference suspension A, Reference suspension B, and water in diffused daylight, viewing vertically against a black background see Visual Comparison under Spectrophotometry and Light-Scattering Test solution: substance to be examined. Similarly transfer portions of Standard solution and water to separate, matching test tubes. Compare the Test solution, Standard solution, and water in diffused daylight, viewing vertically against a white background see Visual Comparison under Spectrophotometry and Light-Scattering The Test solution has the appearance of water or is not more intensely colored than the Standard solution.
B: Infrared Absorption F or S neat. Specific gravity : between 0. The solution is colorless. Add 1. The solution is pink 30 ppm, expressed as acetic acid. Examine between and nm, in a 5-cm cell, using water as the compensation liquid. The absorption curve is smooth.
Dilute 5. The carrier gas is helium with a linear velocity of about 35 cm per second and a split ratio of The column temperature is maintained at 40 for the first 12 minutes after an injection is made and is increased from 40 to from 12 to 32 minutes after injection. During the period of 32 to 42 minutes after an injection is made, the column temperature is maintained at The injection port temperature is maintained at My Favorites List.
My Quotes. We manufacture and distribute fine chemicals and laboratory products - with quality and delivery you can count on every time. Spectrum Chemical carries USP alcohol, also referred to as rectified spirits. We carry a large variety of grades including proof Kosher certified, polyvinyl alcohol USP, dehydrated alcohol proof USP, and more.
This product, proof USP grade alcohol, is used as an antiseptic to disinfect skin prior to injections and as a solvent. Spectrum Chemical offers over Food grade chemic. It is a cooling and soothing liquid for external applications to minimize the risk of infection and is not suitable. Fluconazole, USP is used to treat and prevent superficial and systematic fungal infections. Known as a triazole antifungal drug, it has a white crystalline appearance and is slightly soluble in water and alcohol.
Most commonly found unde. The FCC grade meets the requirements of the Food Chemical Codex indicates and is suitable for all food, beverage and nutritional supplement applications. Eugenol, USP is used as a local antiseptic and anaesthetic. Polyvinyl Alcohol, USP is a viscosity-enhancer and lubricant excipient.
Disulfiram, USP is used to treat chronic alcoholism by creating acute sensitivity to alcohol in the body. Dexpanthenol, USP is the alcohol analog of pantothenic acid, and is thus a provitamin of B5. Triclosan, USP is used as an antibacterial and antifungal agent, as well as a selective agent in molecular cloning. The USP grade indicates it is graded suitable for personal care, cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications.
All Spectrum C. You have no items in your cart. My Favorites List My Quotes. Search Structure Search We manufacture and distribute fine chemicals and laboratory products - with quality and delivery you can count on every time. Usp Alcohol. View Grid List. Show 16 items 32 items 48 items 64 items. Alcohol, Proof, USP.Alcoholsometimes referred to by the chemical name ethanolis a psychoactive drug that is the active ingredient in drinks such as beerwineand distilled spirits hard liquor.
Ethanol is only one of several types of alcoholbut it is the only type of alcohol that is found in alcoholic beverages or commonly used for recreational purposes; other alcohols such as methanol and isopropyl alcohol are significantly more toxic.
A mild, brief exposure to isopropanol, being only moderately more toxic than ethanol, is unlikely to cause any serious harm. Methanol, being profoundly more toxic than ethanol, is lethal in quantities as small as milliliters tsp. Alcohol has a variety of short-term and long-term adverse effects. Short-term adverse effects include generalized impairment of neurocognitive function, dizzinessnauseavomitingand hangover -like symptoms. Alcohol can be addictive to humansas in alcoholismand can result in dependence and withdrawal.
It can have a variety of long-term adverse effects on health, for instance liver damage brain damage and its consumption is the fifth leading cause of cancer.
However, some of them, such as increased risk of certain cancers, may occur even with light or moderate alcohol consumption. Alcohol has been produced and consumed by humans for its psychoactive effects for almost 10, years. However, there are often restrictions on alcohol sale and use, for instance a minimum age for drinking and laws against public drinking and drinking and driving.
Drinking establishmentssuch as bars and nightclubsrevolve primarily around the sale and consumption of alcoholic beverages, and partiesfestivalsand social gatherings commonly feature alcohol consumption as well. Alcohol use is also related to various societal problems, including driving accidents and fatalitiesaccidental injuriessexual assaultsdomestic abuseand violent crime.
Ethanol is typically consumed as a recreational substance by mouth in the form of alcoholic beverages such as beerwineand spirits. It is commonly used in social settings due to its capacity to enhance sociability. The amount of ethanol in the body is typically quantified by blood alcohol content BAC ; weight of ethanol per unit volume of blood. Small doses of ethanol, in general, are stimulant -like  and produce euphoria and relaxation; people experiencing these symptoms tend to become talkative and less inhibited, and may exhibit poor judgement.
Ethanol is commonly consumed as a recreational substance, especially while socializing, due to its psychoactive effects. Ethanol is a source of energy and pure ethanol provides 7 calories per gram. According to the U. Alcoholic beverages are considered empty calorie foods because other than food energy they contribute no essential nutrients. It also has reinforcement -related adverse effects, including addictiondependenceand withdrawal.
Alcohol causes considerable societal damage including suppression of psychological inhibitionswhich may increase the risk for activities such as impulsive sexdrunk dialingand alcohol-related crimes such as public intoxicationand drunk driving. Alcohol causes a plethora of detrimental effects in society, both to the individual and to others.
Alcohol is often used to facilitate sexual assault or rape. Alcohol abuse and dependence are major problems and many health problems as well as death can result from excessive alcohol use.
Alcohol causes generalized central nervous system depression and associated cognitivememorymotorand sensory impairment. It slows and impairs cognition and reaction time, impairs judgement, interferes with motor function resulting in motor incoordination, loss of balance, and slurred speech, impairs memory formation, and causes sensory impairment.Denatured alcoholalso called methylated spirits in Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and the United Kingdom or wood spirit or denatured rectified spirit is ethanol that has additives to make it poisonousbad-tasting, foul-smelling, or nauseating to discourage recreational consumption.
It is sometimes dyed so that it can be identified visually. Pyridinemethanol or both can be added to make denatured alcohol poisonous, and denatonium can be added to make it bitter. Denatured alcohol is used as a solvent and as fuel for alcohol burners and camping stoves. Because of the diversity of industrial uses for denatured alcohol, hundreds of additives and denaturing methods have been used. Other typical additives include isopropyl alcoholacetonemethyl ethyl ketoneand methyl isobutyl ketone.
Denaturing alcohol does not chemically alter the ethanol molecule unlike the denaturation process in biochemistry. Rather, the ethanol is mixed with other chemicals to form a foul-tasting, often toxic, solution. For many of these solutions, it is intentionally difficult to separate the components. In many countries, sales of alcoholic beverages are heavily taxed for revenue and public health policy purposes see Pigovian tax. In order to avoid paying beverage taxes on alcohol that is not meant to be consumed, the alcohol must be "denatured", or treated with added chemicals to make it unpalatable.
Its composition is tightly defined by government regulations in countries that tax alcoholic beverages. Denatured alcohol is used identically to ethanol itself except for applications that involve fuel, surgical and laboratory stock.
Pure ethanol is required for food and beverage applications and certain chemical reactions where the denaturant would interfere. In molecular biologydenatured ethanol cannot be used for the precipitation of nucleic acids.
Denatured alcohol has no advantages for any purpose over normal ethanol; it is a public policy compromise. As denatured alcohol is sold without the often heavy taxes on alcohol suitable for consumption, it is a cheaper solution for most uses that do not involve drinking. If pure ethanol were made cheaply available for fuel, solvents, or medicinal purposes, it would likely be used as a drink by some people. Despite its poisonous content, denatured alcohol is sometimes consumed as a surrogate alcohol.
This can result in blindness or death if it contains methanol. For instance, during the Prohibition in the United Statesfederal law required methanol in domestically manufactured industrial alcohols.
From 25—27 Decemberwhich was roughly at the midpoint of the "Noble Experiment" of nationwide alcohol prohibition, 31 people in New York City alone died of methanol poisoning. Substances such as pyridine are added to give the mixture an unpleasant odourand agents such as syrup of ipecac may also be included to induce vomiting. New Zealand has removed methanol from its government-approved "methylated spirits" formulation. Diverse additives are used to make it difficult to use distillation or other simple processes to reverse the denaturation.
Methanol is commonly used both because its boiling point is close to that of ethanol and because it is toxic. Another typical denaturant is pyridine. Often the denatured alcohol is dyed with methyl violet. There are several grades of denatured alcohol, but in general the denaturants used are similar. As an example, the formulation for completely denatured alcoholaccording to British regulations was as follows: . Completely denatured alcohol must be made in accordance with the following formulation: with every 90 parts by volume of alcohol mix 9.
The European Union agreed in February to the mutual procedures for the complete denaturing of alcohol: .
Per hectolitre L of absolute ethanol: 3 litres of isopropyl alcohol, 3 litres of methyl ethyl ketone and 1 gram denatonium benzoate. In the United States and other countries, the use of denatured alcohol unsuitable for beverages avoids excise taxes on alcohol.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.Medically reviewed by Drugs. Last updated on Apr 21, The solution contains no bacteriostat, antimicrobial agent or added buffer and is intended only for use as a single-dose injection.
Isopropyl Rubbing Alcohol USP
When smaller doses are required the unused portion should be discarded. It has the following structural formula:. In the average adult, pure ethyl alcohol is metabolized at a rate of approximately 10 to 20 mL per hour, depending on body weight and tolerance of the individual.
Sedative effects of alcohol occur if the rate of infusion exceeds the rate of metabolism. Dextrose can be infused at a maximum rate of 0. Thus, the maximum rate that alcohol can be infused without producing sedative effects is well below the maximum rate of utilization of dextrose.
Solutions containing carbohydrate in the form of dextrose restore blood glucose levels and provide calories.Rubbing alcohol for makeup fixing review, bridal essencial list for brides,
Carbohydrate in the form of dextrose may aid in minimizing liver glycogen depletion and exerts a protein-sparing action. Alcohol is metabolized, mostly in the liver, to acetaldehyde or acetate. The rate of oxidation is a linear function of time. Starvation lowers the rate of metabolism and insulin increases the rate. Average normal adult daily requirements range from two to three liters 1. Water balance is maintained by various regulatory mechanisms.
Alcohol should not be used in patients with epilepsy or urinary tract infection. Alcohol should be used cautiously, if at all, in patients with liver impairment, in the presence of shock, following cranial surgery, in actual or anticipated postpartum hemorrhage or in the presence of significant renal impairment.
Alcohol will decrease blood sugar in diabetic patients. In the untreated diabetic the rate of alcohol metabolism will be slowed. As a nutrient, alcohol supplies only calories. Given alone, it may cause or potentiate vitamin deficiencies and disturbances of liver function.
Alcohol crosses the placenta rapidly and enters the fetal circulation. It may also be found in the milk of lactating women. The use of this preparation in pregnancy should be carefully deliberated. The vasodilating effect may potentiate postural hypotension, particularly in association with some antihypertensive drugs. Clinical evaluation and periodic laboratory determinations are necessary to monitor changes in fluid balance, electrolyte concentrations and acid-base balance during prolonged parenteral therapy or whenever the condition of the patient warrants such evaluation.
Solutions containing dextrose should be used with caution in patients with known subclinical or overt diabetes mellitus. Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with alcohol or dextrose. It is also not known whether alcohol or dextrose can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity.
Alcohol and dextrose should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.Method I is to be used for the determination of alcohol, unless otherwise specified in the individual monograph.
It is suitable for examining most fluidextracts and tinctures, provided the capacity of the distilling flask is sufficient commonly two to four times the volume of the liquid to be heated and the rate of distillation is such that clear distillates are produced.
Cloudy distillates may be clarified by agitation with talc, or with calcium carbonate, and filtered, after which the temperature of the filtrate is adjusted and the alcohol content determined from the specific gravity. During all manipulations, take precautions to minimize the loss of alcohol by evaporation.
Treat liquids that froth to a troublesome extent during distillation by rendering them strongly acidic with phosphoric, sulfuric, or tannic acid, or treat with a slight excess of calcium chloride solution or with a small amount of paraffin or silicone oil before starting the distillation.
Prevent bumping during distillation by adding porous chips of insoluble material such as silicon carbide, or beads.
Add an equal volume of water, distill, and collect a volume of distillate about 2 mL less than the volume taken of the original test liquid, adjust to the temperature at which the original test liquid was measured, add sufficient water to measure exactly the original volume of the test liquid, and mix. The distillate is clear or not more than slightly cloudy, and does not contain more than traces of volatile substances other than alcohol and water.
Determine the specific gravity of the liquid at 25as directed under Specific Gravityusing this result to ascertain the percentage, by volume, of C 2 H 5 OH contained in the liquid examined by reference to the Alcoholometric Table in the section Reference Tables.
The proportion of C 2 H 5 OH, by volume, in this distillate, as ascertained from its specific gravity, equals one-half that in the liquid examined. If volatile acids are present, render the preparation slightly alkaline with sodium hydroxide TS.
Saturate this mixture with sodium chloride, then add 25 mL of solvent hexane, and shake the mixture to extract the interfering volatile ingredients. Draw off the separated, lower layer into a second separator, and repeat the extraction twice with two further mL portions of solvent hexane. Extract the combined solvent hexane solutions with three mL portions of a saturated solution of sodium chloride.
Combine the saline solutions, and distill in the usual manner, collecting a volume of distillate having a simple ratio to the volume of the original specimen. If volatile oils are present in small proportions only, and a cloudy distillate is obtained, the solvent hexane treatment not having been employed, the distillate may be clarified and rendered suitable for the specific gravity determination by shaking it with about one-fifth its volume of solvent hexane, or by filtering it through a thin layer of talc.
For a discussion of the principles upon which it is based, see Gas Chromatography under Chromatography Method IIa. Prior to use, condition the column overnight at with a slow flow of carrier gas.
The column temperature is maintained atand the injection port and detector temperatures are maintained at Adjust the carrier flow and temperature so that acetonitrile, the internal standard, elutes in 5 to 10 minutes. Method IIb. Helium is used as the carrier gas at a linear velocity of The chromatograph is programmed to maintain the column temperature at 50 for 5 minutes, then to increase the temperature at a rate of 10 per minute toand maintain at this temperature for 4 minutes.
The injection port temperature is maintained at and the detector temperature at Pappa, Ph.
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